Fly into Calgary International Airport - this is the nearest major airport to the Canadian Rockies.
Options to get to Banff
1) Drive - it is about 1.5-2 hours drive - roughly 130KM.
2) Shuttle - a number of shuttle services offer transportatino - Brewster, Sundog, Banff Airporter
Banff Itinerary - Summer
Day 1 - Explore Banff downtown - you can get everywhere walking around. Check out Banff Upper Hot Springs to relax after the journey to get here.
Day 2- Hike up Sulphur Mountain. Great views and you can hike back down or take the gondola down. If you're still feeling like doing something, you can canoe on the Bow River from the Blue Canoe docks. Check out Grizzly House, a unique bar/restaurant for dinner.
Day 3-4 Drive along the Icefields Parkway - one of the most beautiful roads to drive in the world to Lake Louise. Recommend getting there early. Canoe and kayaking is possible on the lake. Two great hikes in this area are to the Lake Agnes Tea House (leaves from near the Fairmont) and the Six Glacier Tea House and Abbot Pass (longer but amazing). Grab a meal at the Chateau Fairmont. You can also stay here for a night or two (there are also AirBnbs available)
Day 5 - Continue along the Icefields Parkway. Other lakes to check out include Moraine Lake. Two other hikes on this road that you could check is the Bow Summit Lookout and Wilcox Pass. End up in the town of Jasper where you will stay the night.
Day 6-7 - Check out Jasper downtown. Walk around, go biking (mountain biking or road biking).
Take a trip to Maligne Lake near Jasper. It is a stunning lake and you can boat to Spirit Island in the middle. In the same day, you can also check out Maligne Canyon and Athabasca Falls.
Another option is to hike to Angel Glacier - with a lake of icebergs.
Day 8- Head back towards Banff on the Icefields Parkway. Stop at the Columbia Icefields and you can take a monster truck all the way up on the glacier, and drink glacial water straight from the ground. Stunning views.
Day 9 - Check out the Banff Historical Site - guaranteed to see bears here. The Whyte Museum showcases the history of the Canadian Rockies. If you're looking for an active day, you can rent bikes again and go biking on the trails right out of the town. Check out Wild Bill's Legendary Saloon on your last day.
Day 10 - Late start to the morning, perhaps one last trip to the hot springs, and time to make the drive back towards Calgary and onwards.